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Katalin Langer University docent Associate Supervisor: Approval of the Supervisor. Approval of the Associate Lnger 2. In my dissertation I analyse, by lwnger of my own research, the communication practices of hotels, travel agencies, and catering units and how they try to better prepare students in this respect. Teachers of foreign languages have little insight into business communication practices.
My aim with this paper is to help to alleviate this problem. This work is explorative and its goal is to examine business communication at workplaces in tourism. I examine these phenomena with the help of methods I learnt during my studies, since the main aim of teaching is that students will be able to cope with problems in the future. The topicality of the matter Since our accession to the European Union problems in the field of business communication have zlei more apparent both in Hungarian and in foreign languages.
Job advertisements usually state the requirement for koommunikci command of a lzeti language or alternatively jobs may be advertised in a foreign language. Managers are expected to have excellent command of at least one foreign language. With our accession to the EU foreign labour markets opened up for Hungarian job-seekers thus it is not very difficult to find reasons why it is important to deal with foreign language business communication.
In the so-called Bologna-process students in higher education learn exclusively business-oriented foreign language.
The general language, the basic vocabulary and grammar, is taught at secondary education, and the task of higher education in this field should be to add business communication. Objectives The objective of my dissertation and my research is to facilitate and improve the teaching of foreign language business communication. Kommunikck research topic is always restricted.
I chose business communication in the field of tourism as my research topic with a focus on business language competence, business language teaching and examination practices since I have gained relevant knowledge in connection with these aspects during my work.
Although my work mainly deals with the field of tourism, I truly komumnikci that the findings will be of great use in other areas of business communication as well. In on behalf of the European Committee there was a survey among people working in tourism, but even this study covering the whole EU did not deal with the system of business communication, so my explorative research is justified.
I discovered a lot of approaches of business communication, education and the difficulties of education which I would like to summarize now. The teaching methods of foreign languages are usually based on grammar and translation in our education. Fortunately, teaching methodology has started to emphasize communication in everyday language use.
Intercultural tendency is very useful in tourism. According to this, the knowledge of cultural background is essential to learn a foreign language. I agree with Schiffer s model: Learning by doing, which claims that knowledge can be memorized the best by its applications.
Zhaos s model Experimental Learning emphasises communication situations which are very kanger to everyday life. To carry out this, there is a need for teachers with high level knowledge of language and profession.
The knowledge of profession is considered very important in business communication by many people. ,ommunikci continuously faced with this problem during teaching business communication for students in their first year. Working on projects, practiceoriented tasks help a kommujikci in motivation, but they do not substitute the work of secondary education in language teaching.
After business communication and foreign language connection, I dealt with intercultural zlleti in other words, with cultural infrastructure and its different approaches. I introduced special training programmes in the frames of business communication in an institution. There are two specialist language exams to measure business communication in a foreign language: These language examinations are necessary to receive a specialist diploma nowadays.
Business communication was examined in several respects Hoffstede, Reeves, Langer, Ditlevsen and it was a useful starting point kommmunikci my own research. I found, kojmunikci there were no surveys of this kind in tourism, so I could fill a gap with it. To sum up, we can say, that theoretical models can clarify the given topic; they give important allusions and ideas.
The foreign language business communication related expectations towards the employees of tourism enterprises at their workplace, and to what extent they live up to those expectations language certificate, language competence. The most frequent business communication situations that students should be prepared during language training.
To define the inter cultural knowledge and competence required in tourism industry.
Business communication system in tourism industry. Hypotheses My proposed hypotheses in the tourism sector are as follows: H1 In tourism industry, the employees foreign language business communication competence is measurable, and distinction can be made on the basis of the scope of activities. H2 In tourism industry, a foreign language business communication system can be modelled, and the most important business communication activities can be defined.
H3 The intercultural competences required in the tourism industry can be appointed in intercultural knowledge. During qualitative research, I outlined the business communication system with the help of experts in tourism.
Independent restaurants have simple organization structure and simple communication, so I chose a tour operator in franchise system and a hotel chain as a base of qualitative survey, because organization communication can be studied in more details. With quantitative research, first I measured employees working in front office, and then I moved onto the field of sales and marketing.
During the quantitative interviews I questioned employees who worked in travel agencies, hotels or catering units proportionally. While preparing for the survey I composed and tested the questionnaires and then I conducted the standard interviews myself.
This improved the response rate; moreover, I also gained an insight into working conditions. Then I analysed the data with the mastered statistical methods, and made the business communication models.
The assessment and analysis of the data The aim of qualitative interview is to measure and model company business communication between departments and its external communication.
During the quantitative survey, in order to make the assessment of the results easier, I put the answers into categories and I coded them.
The analysis of the connections between quantitative qualities variables is made by contingent tables. The statistical significance between their relationships is determined by Chi square. The Kramer-factor shows how closely details are related to each other.
Katzlin the basis of tables and graphs, we can observe the grouping of jobs, but I made segmentation with the help of K-means to check my hypothesis. Despite this fact the results are suitable to express basic tendencies and to analyse the situation for educational purposes.
The review is made on the basis of the segmentation of the survey. A Corporate Business Communication Model qualitative survey: During qualitative survey, the internal and external business communication was modelled at Danubius Zrt. Moreover, I managed to obtain further information, such as marketing communication activities.
B Survey of scope of activities involving significant language use quantitative survey: I interviewed the front-office staff who are in daily contact with the guests, i. Then this survey was extended to the whole territory of Hungary to get a representative sample.
The employees were mainly young.
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The travel agency at the tophotel, and catering unit succession order gained dominance in respect of education and other areas as well. In other words, according to the profession, language certificates do not cover the requirements of business communication in the tourism industry. This fact should be considered by language examination centres. In hotels and tour operator companies or travel agencies, an intermediate language examination was sometimes a prerequisite. The level of the real language examinations was well above the required: The required language certificates did not always cover the level of the aleti of activities and foreign language business communication, but those acquired during employment kayalin.
Among the employees, the knowledge of two languages English and German was typical, but some of the Italic languages are also spoken, while the others have only a few speakers. The mentioned and frequently used situations are in direct connection with the scope of activity, namely, table service and offering in gastronomy, checking in and out in hotels, and business correspondence, telephone conversations and booking in travel agencies.
Giving information was typical in every sector. It is just the opposite of Hungarian practice.
Business Communication in a Foreign Language in Tourism
The required langfr are mainly speaking communication and professional situations, which is of outstanding importance from the educational point of view. It follows that there is a demand for the practice of professional situations. So, the regions belonging to the Germanic and Italic languages are the most prominent, although, the number of Russian speaking tourists have increased komkunikci recently.
From the cultural aspect, mainly basic knowledge of religion, traditions, customs are regarded important and eating habits in the catering sector.
In this chapter, I model the requirements of service sectors of tourism. The following model demonstrates the average of the estimated level of the five foreign language communication competences.
According to my quantitative research, and on the basis of the three main sectors of tourism, the following model can be outlined in order to prove the ability for business communication in a foreign language. Figure 1 Companies can measure the suitability of labour force by testing language knowledge and by asking for a language certificate.
There are some workplaces, where there is no test for checking the suitability of workers. The method can be different according to tourism sectors, as the following figures shows Figure 2. There are two practises at hotels and tour operators: Chi square and the Kramer-factor value show lnager loose connection between tourism sectors and necessary language exams.
The language knowledge of the recruited employees is crucial, because a good communication skill is not enough without the necessary level of knowledge of a foreign language.
I described this point in my quantitative survey. On the basis of the average of the four basic communication competences, we can outline the following figure which shows the order of importance of jobs on the basis of the average of the communication competences.
On the basis of the given language exams, waiters do not have even a basic B1 level language exam in several places, managers of restaurants possess a language knowledge slightly above the general basic language exam. Travel agents, receptionists, hotel managers and managers of travel agencies have the highest level language knowledge, but in general, it is usually an intermediate B2 language exam. Laner operators and employees in Sales and Marketing approach the intermediate B2 specialist language exam.
Language knowledge of employees in kommunikcci Sales and Marketing exceeds the intermediate B2 specialist language exam. Language exam is not always a requirement in the list of the conditions of employment, but on the basis of CVs, employers can decide weather an employee could prove his language knowledge. Therefore, this is an essential element in recruiting employees.