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By Arian Kazem Zarrinkafsch-Bahman. Reza Shah’s march on Tehran, his following career as minister of warprime minister and superior commander-in-chief and the abolishing of the Qajar dynasty were very welcomed by all Iranians after years of desolate conditions, the war and non-taxation under Ahmad Shahwho was not interested in matters of state.
He works mainly around lunch- and dinner-time reading petitions and afflictions from his subjects. As well he checks reports from his ministers, governors, generals and courtiers.
Later he reads the newspapers or foreign books. He receives inhabitants and listens to their requests, and a special royal attendant gives them the shah’s answer. Etimad os-Saltaneh also reports about audiences and official receptions for foreign envoys and ambassadors as well as he received his notables, courtiers, ministers and governors. Especially during the time when he reigns on his own without a prime minister.
The “Majles-e Shora-ye Dowlati” the crown council, founded after was the first step to political reforms, and, according to Abdollah Mostowfi in “Sharh-e Zendegani-ye man” publishedvol I, p.
This was not a pleasure trip but intended in to show “the effects of financial and cultural advancement He appointed his sons as governors of different provinces or regions. It was customary for the Shah to send with any worthless prince a man capable of guiding him, called a vizier. Fath Ali Shah had more than 90 direct descendants Fasa’i reports how the shah managed to conquer the province of Khorassan, arrested and executed the last Afshar pretender and subdued his own brother to secure his rule and went in fruitful negotiations with the emirs of Afghanistan, Marv and Bukhara.
Sometimes, he went as far as Isfahan and Shiraz, occasionally camping on the prairies of Soltaniyeh. In this camp, he engaged in war games and called forth the military power that would be sent to Azerbaijan Both authors report that Fath Ali Shah, despite from his life of comfort and pleasure-seeking in the harem quarters of his several palaces, reorganized the administrative apparatus into a well-running central system; how he supported local trade and craftsmanship and revived the arts.
He got in contact with the European powers – and at least was trapped by diplomatic maneuvers of France and Britain and his own lack of diplomacy! One was for the appointment of Sardar Sepah as Prime Minister, and the other one about his own departure for Europe. Because the shah took with him all money in cash and gold as well as the private family jewels on his trip to Europe, at least, Mostowfi considered him negativley a coward that “a firecracker in the next room” made him left the country as a fugitive lounging around the hotels in Europe.
Mostowfi supported the idea a Qajar prince succeeded Ahmad Shah rather than Reza Khan, who he judged inappropriate.
Sardar Sepah anticipated that Soltan Ahmad Shah could return to Iran whenever he gathered enough willpower to do so, which would then cause a major handicap for him. He could loose the position of primeminister Here, the bad image of the Qajars was created artificially by post-Pahlavi medias in Iran, shortly before Majles voted for their deposing!
The move was clearly unconstitutional. The constituent assembly had no legal authority to do so. Reza Khan knew that Soltan Ahmad Shah’s resignation was necessary. He thus was still the shah and the coup government illegitimate. They based on older sources mainly from Pahlavi time and additional reports or misinterpreted sources like Mostowfi.
Here we found the traditional image of Soltan Ahmad Shah as a weak king not interested in matters of state, corrupt and only interested in money. But the above mentioned facts, reports and sources nowadays give us a completely different new view on the person and fate of His Imperial Majesty Soltan Ahmad Shah Qajar!
Abdollah Mostowfi writes in his memories “Sharh-e zendegani-ye man”, transl. At this point, while taking leave, the commander-in-chief fell at the Shah’s feet expressing his absolute loyalty to his sovereign and promised to protect the country until His Majesty’s return.
This could be a clear manifestation that up to this point, it had not occurred to Sardar Sepah to even think about becoming king himself,” p. Sardar Sepah went to the port of Bushehr to prepare the reception for the Shah’s arrival. He proceeded kettab Shiraz and Isfahan and arrived in Ktab on the 23rd. Along the way, everywhere and in every city, the people gave the Shah a tremendous welcome.
This expression of sincerity and affection ttarikhi the Shah by the public was intended for Sardar Sepah to understand that they loved democracy and a Constitutional monarch,” p. Here His Majesty’s speech shows how he once had handle things before leaving the country. He put the affairs of state in his crown prince’s hands taking care for the welfare of the nation and people.
Abdollah Mostowfi also reports in his memories “Sharh-e zendegani-ye man”, transl.
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His ideas were based on the concept of Sufism and kind of idealistic. Maybe he hoped that his crown prince “Hassan Joon” i. Mohammad Hassan Mirza were on better terms with Reza Khan. At this tragic moment when the tarikbi of my country is at risk, all my thoughts are with my people,to whom I address this declaration: The coup d’etat just committed by Reza Khan against the constitution and my dynasty, was committed through the force of bayonets.
It contravenes the most sacred laws and fatally leads my people into great calamities and undeserved sufferance. I strongly raise my voice in protest against this coup d’etat.
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Now and in the future, I consider null and void all acts emanating from such a government and committed under its rule. I am and remain the legitimate and constitutional sovereign of Persia, and I await the hour of my return to my country to continue serving my people.
Soltan Ali Kadjar, p. The crown prince tried to made efforts to reestablish relations between the shah and his prime minister. At this time the country suffered from famine and shortage of bread, and in a telegram Soltan Ahmad Shah inquired about the situation, expressing his regrets over this problem. It was meant to scare Soltan Ahmad Shah from returning to Iran. This maybe was Reza Khan Pahlavi’s final political overthrow.
The imperial family already departed changed plans when arriving in Bombay and went on a visit to Baghdad not Tehran and then to Beirut, where the young princes went to school.
Soltan Ahmad did not sign and dispatched Zoka’-ol-Molk back to his new master with the following message, but otherwise empty handed. Being presented with the offer by his former courtier, Soltan Ahmad Shah replies: Tell your master from me that this is wishful thinking on his part. I can hold my head high before future generations of Iran and before my own conscience, that I have even been willing to be deposed rather than to betray, and that I tarikyi done nothing but to carry out the duties that had been bestowed upon me, and that history will judge that I have been deposed against the will of the people of Iran.
My resignation would be interpreted as an act of assent and an agreement on my part that rulership was not mine by right. For these reason if you had offered me the whole world I would tadikhi resign. Furthermore, Makki gave an accurate account what really happened in those crucial days. He summoned Ambassador Anoushirvan Sepahbody to the presidential palace and instructed him to immediately intervene on his behalf with Soltan Ahmad Shah in Paris with the following offer of assistance: Makki states that Soltan Ahmad Shah, upon hearing of this offer from Ambassador Sepahbody, answered “Please offer my thanks.
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Simply extend our gratitude for the offer, and say that we did not accept. Letab again was another time, the kerab denied any ungrateful help or money, as he did it once in London with the British for ratifying the Anglo-Persian Treaty inwith Foroughi with his resignation inand finally here.
These facts might show the true nature of this gallant last shah of our dynasty. Dowleh and the minister Nosrat od-Dowleh a treaty which made Iran de facto a British colony or at least a protectorate. Often it is said Ahmad Shah was a silent witness to this treaty and had accepted it secretly. In fact, Keetab Shah’s speech and attitude concerning the Anglo-Persian Agreement on a banquet at London, 31 Octobershows how he really thought about it.
Manoutchehr Eskandari-Qajar in his interesting article “Persia’s honor: Great Britain and Persia had now “become closer than they [had] ever been. The establishment of new principles and new ideas in international relations with the formation of the League of Nations.
Given the fact that my country, benefiting from a liberal constitution, had already assumed its rightful place among the free nations of the world, one of the principal reasons for my journey is to study personally the democratic institutions of this country, which has been the first to give to other nations an example of parliamentary government, and this in order to make it more possible for myself to better steer my own country on the road to progress.
All principles the British needed no reminder of except for the fact that they were quite willing to forget them when it came to countries they did not judge worthy of such consideration when such consideration would interfere with their imperial plans.
He further remarked that he was fully aware that “because of her geographic position, and because of her secular traditions, Persia [was] called upon to help in the establishment of order and progress in the Middle East, a condition so essential to the overall peace in Asia. We wished to assist him indeveloping the kstab of his native land.
Those resources were indeed considerable: They were the resources of tariihi and the resources of a naturally industrious and capable population. In this respect land transport and communication was lamentably difficult. Then there was the administration of justice for her people, and, above all which was the secret of all successful administrationa sound and economic finance. Thanking his hosts, he reminded them that while he was not the first monarch of Persia to enjoy the hospitality of the city of London, he could lay claim to the honor of being the first constitutional monarch of Persia received there.
He said he was representing ” a new and liberal regime from which [his] people expected tarikhl regeneration of the country, a regeneration that had been hampered until now by unfavorable influences. The present moment was particularly well chosen for the attainment of the object of closer unity between the two peoples. There was a new spirit of co-operation and fraternity between them, and this spirit was consecrated by the League of Nations, which guaranteed the free development of States in the full enjoyment of their independence and integrity.
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