The FINER and PICOT criteria can be useful tools in this process. CONCLUSION: It is essential to invest time, energy, and resources in the construction of the. Pregunta de investigación y estrategia PICOTMedicina. | journal- article. DOI: /medicina.v19i Formulación de preguntas clínicas específicas en formato PICO. En anteriores números de esta revista, se han revisado métodos de búsqueda y síntesis de la.

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The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidence search.

PICO process – Wikipedia

Evidence based practice estratdgia the use of the best scientific evidence to support the clinical decision making. The identification of the best evidence requires the construction of estrafegia appropriate research question and review of the literature.

This article describes the use of the PICO strategy for the construction of the research question and bibliographical search. In the course of the twentieth century, health research techniques have been refined and clinical trials have improved. Today, piot are several clinical trials available in the databases. RCT studies have showed conflicting results in situations with similar research objectives and objects and generate doubts regarding effectiveness, fundamentation, indications and results of several health practices.

The EBP previews methodologies and processes in order to identify evidence of whether a certain treatment or diagnosis is effective, strategies to evaluate the quality of studies and mechanisms to implement it in care. This article focuses on the initial stage of EBP, the identification of evidence, which requires the adequate construction of the research question and bibliographic search. Evidence is what is clear, the confirmation of a truth that elicits no doubt.

Scientific evidence represents a proof that certain knowledge is true or false. In order to have scientific evidence, a pickt research is necessary, conducted according to scientific precepts 4.

Archie Cochrane United Kingdom exerted a profound influence on the assessment of medical interventions, establishing the importance of RCT in the evaluation of treatment effectiveness 5.

EBP aims to improve care through the identification and promotion of workable practices and, at the same time, through the elimination of inefficient and prejudicial ones 7minimizing the gap between the generation of evidence and its application in patient care. Table 1 presents the stages of EBP Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 represent the development of studies called systematic review, a fundamental research model inside EBP. Systematic review represents the use of a standardized method to synthesize data from multiple primary studies 8.


Traditional literature reviews nowadays called narrative reviews have been criticized for a long time because the bibliographic search and study selection method is not standardized and made explicit. The results obtained through such reviews are biased, do not exhaust all the literature available about the theme and are usually inconclusive. The search for evidence requires an adequate definition of the research question and the creation of a logical structure for the bibliographic search of evidence in literature, which facilitates and maximizes the research scope EBP proposes that clinical problems that emerge from care practice, teaching or research be decomposed and organized using the PICO strategy 7, These four components are sstrategia essential elements of the research question in EBP and of the construction of the question for the bibliographic search of evidence 7, The PICO strategy can be used to construct several kinds of research questions, originated from clinical practice, human and material resource management, the search of symptom assessment instruments, among others.

The adequate well constructed research question allows for the correct definition of which information evidence is needed to solve the estrategix research question 7,maximizes the recovery of evidence in the database, focuses on the research scope and avoids unnecessary searching. Table 2 presents the four components of the PICO strategy and Table 3 presents an example of estratgeia use to construct a research question 13, Data piclt the systematic review by Bergin and Wraight 16 are used to exemplify the construction of the research question using the PICO strategy.

The authors of this systematic review demonstrated that the incidence of foot ulcers in diabetics is high and that this is a predictor of amputation in these patients. When analyzing the dressings available, they detected that modern dressings possess silver in their composition anti-microbial but are not widely used. The authors used PICO to describe all the components related to the identified problem and to structure etrategia research question, which was: Once the research question is formulated, the following stage is the beginning of the bibliographic search for evidence, which allows for the recovery of evidence in the databases, and can be schematized in the following stagesSelection of the search terms: The descriptors are classified as: The most known vocabularies of controlled descriptors are: Use of Boolean operators: These terms allow for combinations of descriptors that will be used in the search, with AND for a restrictive combination, OR for an additive combination and NOT for an excluding combination.


PICO process

Combination of components of the PICO strategy for the finalization of the search strategy: Such final strategy must be inserted in the search box existent in the databases, so that evidence is located by means of a bibliographic search. This interface can be accessed on http: Nowadays, there exists a large quantity of many times contradictory scientific information. It is also very easy to access studies developed all over the world.

Having access to the knowledge produced about a certain subject is essential for the development of good research and adequate clinical action. The internet and the portals of open-access journals allow for accessibility to knowledge, but this is not enough, because it is necessary to know what to select from this immense source of information and how to do it.

The PICO strategy helps in these definitions, because it orients the construction of the research question and of the bibliographic search, and permits clinical and research professional, in case of doubt or questioning, to rapidly and accurately locate the best scientific information available.

Number and size of randomized trials reported in general health care journals from to J Nurs Manage 10 3: Elements of a systematic review.

Int J Nurs Pract December;7 6: Rev Latino-am Enfermagem maio-junho;13 3: History and development of evidence-based medicine. World J Surg May;29 5: Principles of evidence based medicine. Arch Dis Child August;90 8: What is evidence-based medicine?

Langenbecks Arch Surg October; 5: Semin Perinatol February; 21 1: NT Estfategia Curve April 7; 3 2: Part II—Searching evidence databases. Evidence based clinical practice. Part 1—well structured clinical questions. Wyatt J, Guly H. Identifying the research question and planning the project.

Emerg Med J July;19 4: Popping the PICO question in research and evidence-based practice.

Appl Nurs Res August;15 3: Bergin SM, Wraight P. Silver based wound dressings and topical agents for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

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