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Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is futbok-arpad most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include association football known as soccer in cxanadi countries ; gridiron football specifically American football or Canadian football ; Futgol-arpad rules football ; rugby football either rugby league or rugby union ; and Gaelic football.
There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage.
Rent E Books El Futbol Soccer Pdf By Arpad Csanadi
During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world. The various codes of football share certain common elements and can be grouped into two main classes of football: Common rules among the sports include: In all codes, common skills include passingtacklingevasion of tackles, catching and kicking.
There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word “football”. It is widely assumed that the word “football” or the phrase “foot ball” refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground much like keepie uppie. The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet.
These games appear to have resembled rugby football. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis.
There are a number of references to traditional, ancientor prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, inmen from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Daviswent ashore to play a form of football with Inuit Eskimo people in Greenland. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team’s line and then at a goal.
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Csanwdi earliest historical account is an anecdote from the book by Robert Brough-SmythThe Aborigines of Victoriain which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about in Victoria, Australiathat he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyballand no links have been found between such games and modern football sports.
Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse as its modern descendant is called is likewise not usually classed as a form of “football. These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially Futbol-apad.
Ancient Greek athlete balancing a ball on his thigh.
A Song dynasty painting by Su Hanchen c. Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan. A revived version of kemari being played at the Tanzan ShrineJapan. An illustration from the s of Australian Aboriginal hunter gatherers. Children in the background are playing a game, possibly Woggabaliri.
A group of aborigines playing a ball game in Guiana. The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England.
An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonumwhich describes “a party of boys The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as ” mob football “, would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal’s bladder  to particular geographical points, such as their opponents’ church, with play futbol-apad place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about — He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:.
After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to csabadi their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of “ball play” or “playing at ball”.
This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from at UlghamUftbol-arpad, England: InNicholas de FarndoneLord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English futbo-larpad classes at the time.
A game known as “football” was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: There is evidence for schoolboys playing a “football” ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball.
The word “pass” in the most recent translation is derived from “huc percute” strike it here and later “repercute pilam” strike the ball again in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team.
The original word translated as “goal” is “metum”, literally meaning the “pillar at each end of the circus course” in a Roman chariot race. There is a reference to “get hold of the ball before [another player] does” Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original translation “Throw yourself against him” Age, objice te illi.
King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word “football”, inwhen he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for “foteball”. There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire.
This is the first description of a “kicking game” and the first description of dribbling: It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the fhtbol-arpad but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as ” calcio storico ” “historic kickball” in the Piazza Santa Croce.
The young aristocrats of the city futbol–arpad dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of futbol-qrpad. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed.
The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day. The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world.
While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its “mob” form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.
Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools. Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between “kicking” and “running” or “carrying” games first became clear. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase “We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde”.
Richard Mulcastera student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as “the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football”. Mulcaster’s writings refer to teams “sides” and “parties”positions “standings”a referee “judge over the parties” and a coach ” trayning maister “.
Mulcaster’s “footeball” had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. InDavid Wedderburna teacher from Aberdeenmentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.
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Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as “keeping goal” and makes an allusion to passing the ball “strike it here”. There is a reference to “get hold of the ball”, suggesting that some handling was allowed.
It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players “drive that man back”. A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby ‘s Book of Gameswritten in about The gates fitbol-arpad called Goals.
He also mentions tactics “leaving some of their best players to guard the goal” ; scoring “they that can strike the ball through their opponents’ goal first win” and the way futbol-arlad were selected “the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness”. He is the first to describe a “law” of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games.
In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, RugbyHarrow and Cheltenhamduring between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.
They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.
Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenhamwhile others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse. The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.
For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the csansdi had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloistersmaking it difficult for them to adopt futgol-arpad and tumble running games.
William Webb Ellisa pupil at Rugby School, is said to have “with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive futbol-agpad of the rugby game.
This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.