Islamic calendar for the CE based on the Ummul Qura system of Saudi Arabia. based on Ummul Qura dates, Saudi Arabia (spans islamic calendar This is a list of Hijri years with the corresponding common era years where applicable. For Hijri .. Islamic Crescents’ Observation Project, Visibility of Muharram Crescent AH; ^ “Praying, fasting to herald in Islamic New Year”. The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of .. , , 5. , , 5. , , 6 . Emile Biémont, Rythmes du temps, Astronomie et calendriers, De Borck, , p; ^ ” “.
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The Islamic calendreir, Muslimor Hijri calendar Arabic: It is used in Muslim countries to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca.
In everyday life of these countries the Gregorian calendar is used. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib now Medina and established the first Muslim community ummahan event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH Latin: For Central Arabia, especially Meccathere is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era.
Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas’udi suggest that the Ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs.
However, Muslim hikri do not calenvrier these months to a particular season. This interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn HishamIbn Manzurand the corpus of 14333 exegesis. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed. Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant.
This interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhiand later by al-Biruni  al-Mas’udiand some Western scholars. The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma’shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews.
The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers 14333 even as they fight you totally hujri know that God is with the godfearing.
Know calendrrier intercalation nasi is hijir addition to disbelief. Those who disbelieve are led to error thereby, making it lawful in one year and forbidden in another in order to adjust the number of the months made sacred by God capendrier make the sacred ones permissible.
The evil of their course appears pleasing to them. But God gives no guidance to those who disbelieve. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared 1433 be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane.
Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve.
Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive. The single forbidden month is Rajabmonth 7.
These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar. Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred: The cycle repeats every 33 lunar years. Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle.
Traditionally this is based on actual observation of the crescent hilal marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month.
Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 hirji depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Bohras Muslims namely AlavisDawoodis and Sulaymanis and Shia Ismaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar see section below in caoendrier odd-numbered months have thirty days and also the twelfth month in a leap year and even months have In Arabicthe “first day” of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week.
The Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers see vesperwhich is evening, in calendrief with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. Thus “gathering day” is often regarded as the weekly hijrii of rest. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday caldndrier. A few others e. In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in falendrier.
Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abrahagovernor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum Ethiopiaattempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephantduring which Muhammad was born sura al-Fil.
This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should include the date of Muhammad’s arrival at Medina known as Yathrib, before Muhammad’s arrival.
Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad’s arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi’ I. The first day of the first month of the Islamic calendar 1 Muharram 1 AH was set to the first new moon after the day the Prophet moved from Quba’ to Medina originally 26 Rabi’ I on the pre-Islamic calendar  i.
This Julian date 16 July was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendarwhich had alternating and day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. Though Cook and Crone in Hagarism: Due to the fact that the Islamic calendar relies on certain variable methods of observation which are used to determine its month-start-dates, the start-dates of its months sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendarwhich are based directly on astronomical calculations.
Still, the Islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it. Both the Islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the solar year in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year.
In the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, a year of 12 lunar months is In this calendar system, lunar months begin precisely at the time of the monthly “conjunction”, when the Moon is located most directly between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a revolution of the Moon around the Earth By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days.
This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours i. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar every four years.
List of Islamic years
The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions being used for the determination of the month-start-dates. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day beginning at sunset of the first sighting of the hilal crescent moon shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon setsthen the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th.
Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries.
Still, due to the fact that both lunar reckoning systems are ultimately based on the lunar cycle itself, both systems still do roughly correspond to one another, never being more than three days out of synch with one another. This traditional practice for the determination of the start-date of the month is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries.
Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory.
But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 17 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters.
Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, during the 48 hour period following the conjunction. The information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month.
A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months. Thus, MalaysiaIndonesiaand a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun moonset after sunset.
In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do.
In some instances, what a country says it does is impossible. Due to the somewhat variable nature of the Islamic calendar, in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the Solar-based Gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of commerce and agriculture. If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today.
But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so. A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations beyond the constraint that each month must be not less than 29 nor more than 30 days on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad’s recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months.
However, some jurists see no contradiction between Muhammad’s teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months. Thus the jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in and respectively.
The major Muslim associations of France also announced in that they would henceforth use a calendar based on astronomical calculations, taking into account the criteria of the possibility of crescent sighting in any place on Earth.
This resulted in a division of the Muslim community of France, with some members following the new rule, and others following the Saudi announcement. Isma’ili-Taiyebi Bohras having the institution of da’i al-mutlaq follow the tabular Islamic calendar see section below prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of Fatimid imams. From 1 Muharrem AH 21 November until 29 Zilhicce 24 October the computed Turkish lunar calendar was based on the following rule: Saudi Arabia uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar.
Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it.
The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes. The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes over the past decade. Before AH before 18 Aprilif the moon’s age at sunset in Riyadh was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.
For AH —22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others except for the location from which the hilal was observed.
Since the beginning of AH 16 Marchthe rule has valendrier clarified a little by czlendrier the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent. Inthe Islamic Society of North Americathe Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research announced that they will calsndrier use a calendar based on calculations using the same parameters as the Umm al-Qura calendar to determine well in advance the beginning of all lunar months and therefore the days associated with all religious observances.
Islamic years converted to AD years. – Islam and the Quran
This was intended as a first step on the way to unify, at some future time, Muslims’ calendars throughout the world. Since 1 Octoberas a cost-cutting measure, Saudi Arabia no longer uses the Islamic calendar for paying the monthly salaries of government employees but the Gregorian calendar. The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar, in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation.